- Volitive Subjunctive – first, second, third person. (When in first person plural, it is the hortatory subjunctive. When in third person, jussive is a polite request). Must be in present subjunctive. Negative requests use (ne) for negation.
- Cibum portemus = Let us carry the food. Notice that this is an indirect command, not an imperative. Usually it is “let”, and in 2nd it is “may”
- Negation = Cibum ne portemus.
- Optative Subjunctive – used to express a wish. “If only…” Introduced by “utinam” or “ut”. It also may lack an introductory word. Any person and number combination may be used. Requires the present, imperfect, or pluperfect tenses. Perfect subjunctive was rare.
- Present = may; imperfect = might; pluperfect = had
- “Ne epistula scriberetur” = If only the letter had not been written
- “If only the slaves had worked more carefully” = Utinam servo diligentius laboravissent.
- Deliberative subjunctive – a question used to deliberate about something, generally rhetorical in form. Uses present & imperfect tenses. Negation is by “non”. It is an inquiry about a potential matter. Translated by “Am I to…”, “Are you to…”, used with the present and imperfect subjunctive.
- Am I to go… (present)
- Was I to go… (imperfect)
- “Maneamne aut excedam?” = Am I to remain or am I to leave?
- “Nonne hunc librum legeremus” Were we not to read this book? (expects a yes response)
- Potential Subjunctive – used to express an action that may occur. Any person or number, only in present and imperfect tenses. Negation occurs with “non”. May be used in a question.
- Present = may, should, would. If in a question, “can”
- Imperfect = might have, would have. If question, “could have”
- “Urbem deleri nolim” = I would not wish/want for the city to be destroyed.
IIlle, illa, illud is a demonstrative adjective meaning “that” or “those”. It can also be used as a non-reflexive 3rd person personal pronoun (e.g. he, she, it; but not himself, herself, or itself). It is declined below:
Ille, illa, illud used as an adjective – “Ille vir portat aquam” (That man carries water)
Ille, illa, illud used as a pronoun “Illa scripsit litteram” (She wrote a letter)
More complicated example:
“Illa litteram illi scripsit” (She wrote him a letter).
N.B. “him” is ambiguous here because ille, illa, illud has the same forms in the dative singular regardless of gender.
Idem, eadem, and idem are the (respectively) masculine, feminine, and neuter forms meaning “the same”, used as a substantive (meaning that it’s not an adjective, but is like a noun). The chart below shows the inflection of “idem”.
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If you’re learning the Latin fifth declension, congratulations, because this is your last one! The fifth declension is all feminine, with the exception of “dies” and “meridies” (day and noon, respectively), which are masculine
The Latin 4th Declension is one of the easiest declensions to learn. It has a masculine and feminine declension and a neuter declension.
Latin comparative and superlative adverbs stem from an understanding of comparative and superlative adjectives, so it is important to be able to form the adjectives before forming the adverbs.
Latin comparative adverbs are formed by declension:
1st & 2nd Declensions:
Stem + “ius”
E.g. Clare (clearly) forms into “clarius”
Stem + iter
E.g. Brevis (brief, short) forms into “breviter”
Note – some exceptions are in play here. Acer becomes “acriter”, not “aceriter”. A full list of exceptions will be made available on this website soon.
Superlative adverbs form from the superlative adjective form.
“Brevissimus” becomes “brevissime”. The -us is dropped and the “e” is added. Remember that this is different from the positive adverb form, which would be “breviter”.
Adverbs, unlike adjectives, are not declined in Latin, so we do not need to be concerned about declensions.
Forming comparative and superlative adjectives is pretty basic.
Comparatives are formed by taking the stem of the adjective and adding “ior/ius” to the end of it.
Example: longus, -a, -um
Take the stem: long + ior/ius
This creates longior or longius. Longior is the masculine and feminine form, and longius is the neuter form. To use “longior” or “longius” in a sentence, we decline it just like a 3rd Declension I-Stem.
Superlatives are formed by taking the stem of the adjective and adding “issimus” (-a, -um). Two exceptions exist.
- In adjectives ending with “er” (regardless of declension), “rimus” (-a, -um) is added.
E.g. Pulcher forms “pulcherrimus”
- Some nouns ending in “lis” add “limus”.
E.g. Similis forms simillimus (-a, -um).
Notice that there are double vowels.
The subjunctive mood of Latin is much more simple than the indicative mood. There are no exceptions, and the formation is mainly the same throughout all conjugations.
The present tense can be summarized as follows:
Present Stem + Tense Sign + Active or Passive Ending
1st conjugation: a to e
2nd conjugation: add an a
3rd conjugation: e to a
3rd -io conjugation: e to a (remember to add an i before vowel stem!)
4th conjugation: add an a
There is an easy way to help you remember this. Just remember “Let’s beat that giant.” The vowels in each word should remind you of the tense signs.
Now just add the normal active or passive endings:
With this in mind, you should be able to conjugate the following verbs in all tenses of the present subjunctive:
The imperfect tense is even easier than the present tense. Just drop the -re and readd it onto the end of all regular verbs. (note: the dropping and readding part is for when you are working with deponent verbs). Now just add your endings.
E.g. amarem, videretur, amarer, caperemur, duceret
Perfect Tense (Active)
Perfect stem + eri + endings
E.g. amaveris, viderit
Pluperfect Tense (Active)
Perfect stem + isse + endings
E.g. amavisses, vidissetis
Perfect Tense Passive
4th principal part + present form of sum in subjunctive
Sum in Present Subjunctive
E.g. amatus sim, visi sint
Pluperfect Tense Passive
4th principal part + imperfect form of sum in subjunctive
At this point, you should note that sum (sum, esse, fui, futurus), follows the construction for the imperfect subjunctive that you just learned!
E.g. amatus essem, monitum esset
The accusative case (abbreviated acc) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb. The same case is used in many languages for the objects of (some or all) prepositions. It is a noun that is having something done to it, usually joined (such as in Latin) with the nominative case, making it an indirect object. It existed in Proto-Indo-European and is present in some Indo-European languages including Latin , Sanskrit, Greek, German, Polish, Sweden, Romanian, Russian and Ukranian.
Now, let’s focus more on the several uses of Latin accusative case such as:
- a direct object.
- to indicate duration of time. E.g., multos annos, “for many years”; ducentos annos, “for 200 years.” This is known as the accusative of duration of time.
- to indicate direction towards which. E.g. domum, “homewards”; Romam, “to Rome” with no preposition needed. This is known as the accusative of place to which, and is equivalent to thelative case found in some other languages.
- as the subject of an indirect statement (e.g. Dixit me fuisse saevum, “He said that I had been cruel;” in later Latin works, such as the Vulgate, such a construction is replaced by quod and a regularly structured sentence, having the subject in the nominative: e.g., Dixit quod ego fueram saevus).
- with case-specific prepositions such as “per” (through), “ad” (to/toward), and “trans” (across).
- in exclamations, such as me miseram, ”wretched me” (spoken by Circe to Ulysses in Ovid‘s Remedium Amoris; note that this is feminine: the masculine form would be me miserum).